The fetal stage is the stage in which is marked byrapid growth and preparation of body systems for functioning in the postnatalenvironment. Viability is the ability of the baby to survive outside the mother’s womb. The gestational age is the age of the fetus derived from onset of mother’s lastmenstrual period. The number of older mothers is on the rise in the U. S. as womenpostpone pregnancy to establish careers or for other reasons.
Healthy women olderthan thirty-five routinely deliver healthy infants just as other between the ages oftwenty and thirty-five do. Teenagers, however, may be at a greater risk for deliveringless healthy babies. Lack of prenatal care is a big reason. Diets, while pregnant, mustbe sufficient not only in number of calories but also with respect to the right amount ofproteins, vitamins, and other nutrients. Stress also plays a big role in delivering ahealthy baby.
Cultural beliefs about potentially harmful consequences of frightening or stressfulevents on fetal development are pervasive, and many societies encourage a calmatmosphere for pregnant women. The social support a pregnant woman receives fromfamily and friends is an important factor that can lessen the consequences of stressduring pregnancy. Another reason is the complicated nutritional needs of teenagers. Teenage mothersgive birth to as many as 500,000 babies in the U. S.
every year. It is suggested towomen that are thirty-five or older undergo a test. Not in all cases does the womanhave to be certain age. In some cases women must undergo an amniocentesis which is a small sampling of thefluid surrounding the developing fetus by inserting a needle and drawing fluid. This testis designed to diagnose fetal developmental disorders and/or genetic disorders. Ultrasonography is a method using sound wave reflections to obtain a representation the developing fetus.
Support within the womb: the placenta. The placenta is a supportorgan formed by the cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining; serves as exchangesite for oxygen, nutrients and waste products. The umbilical cord is made up of bloodvessels in which oxygen, nutrients and waste products are transported betweenplacenta and embryo. As extra precaution the fetus is surrounded in a fluid-filled,transparent protective membrane known as the amniotic sac. Teratogen is anyenvironmental agent that can cause deviations in prenatal development. Causingbehavioral problems to death.
There are a number of diseases that can causecomplications to a pregnancy. These are just a few of the many diseases that can causeharm: toxoplasmosis, hepatitis B, diabetes, and chlamydia. FAS (Fetal AlcoholSyndrome) is a cluster of fetal abnormalities stemming from mother’s consumption ofalcohol. This disease can be avoided. Most infant’s are born in a hospital, although there are some alternative birth settingssuch as, birthing centers (home-like setting). Statistics show that births directlysupervised under a midwife, have less complications and distress.
Preparing forchildbirth, prepared childbirth (also known is ouch), is procedures practiced duringpregnancy and childbirth designed to minimize pain and reduce the need for medicationduring delivery. A cesarean birth is the delivery of a baby through a surgical incision inthe woman’s abdomen and uterus. During the delivery, a fetal monitoring device isused to monitor fetal heartbeat. In the first stage of labor , the neck of the uterus,dilates and thins to open a passage through the birth canal.
When the water is about tobreak, the baby’s head rests inside the cervix. Then, transition, the baby shifts to thebirth canal. After the resting in the birth canal, the baby is ready to be born. The headrotates sideways after it emerges. Thus, allowing the placenta to fall.
Infants born with low-birth weight are in luck. Despite the immediate obstacles facinglow-birth weight babies, many become normal children and adults. Newborns andinfants display a number of states. A large part of their time in engaged in REM sleep, astate that may provide them with stimulation even when asleep.Psychology .